Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

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pinguin
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Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by pinguin » Sat Oct 16, 2010 11:26 pm

This thread is for the foreign friends that, perhaps, would be interested in learn some of the Mapuche, Aymara and Quechua words we still use in Chile.

Pololo(a) = A small bug. It means boyfriend or girlfriend.
guagua = Quechua/Mapuche word for small baby.
chacra = Quechua word for a small farm land.
cancha = Quechua/Aymara word for field.
Chile (Chiri) = Quechua word for cold, freezing weather, the name given by Native peruvians to Chile, probably because the mountain weather.
Cachantun = Mapuche brand name of a mineral bottled water, that means "beautiful skin"
Pichintun = Mapuche a little bit.
guata = Mapuche belly
cahuin = Mapuche mess
malon = Mapuche party
piriguin = baby fish
curanto = cura-antu (stone shining like a sun) Chiloe dish cooked in a stone hole.
Vichuquen = Vicu-lafken (lake that has the shape of a serpent)
Huinca = Robber... name given by the Mapuches to non-Mapuche chileans.
Huincha = band (head band, ribbon)

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by Zenth » Sun Oct 17, 2010 1:10 pm

Pilgua= Carry bag/ those large, reusable plastic bags you designate for potatoes, vegetables, etc.

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FrankPintor
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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by FrankPintor » Sun Oct 17, 2010 5:03 pm

Keep it up please :D it's interesting to see that some of the words I assumed were standard Spanish are imports from South American languages. Most of them seem to be understood in other countries, though "polola" always gets raised eyebrows :lol:
Caracas es Caracas. Lo demás es monte y culebra!

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by pinguin » Sun Oct 17, 2010 7:39 pm

Not long ago I saw an add that reads: "Pullman bus Melipilla".... A curious mixed phrase. Pullman is the last name from an American that developed confortable railroad wagons and it is used as a synonym of luxury transport. Bus, in Spanish is autobus. And Melipilla, well, Melipilla is a Mapuche word that means four volcanos or four spirits... Meli=four, Pillan=Volcano, powerfull spirit, wizard... So, in a single phrase you have English, Spanish and Mapudungun.
Central Chile before contact was a multiethnic area, settled by Northern Mapuches (Picunches), by Diaguitas and other northerner peoples, and ruled by an Inca elite. Central Chile Mapuche was the language of choice, a variation of Mapuche.

Some Mapuche words in Central Chile.

Santiago's hills:
Santa Lucia, Huelen (Pain, melancoly, sadness) named after the chief Huelen Huala, who ruled the sector.
San Cristobal, Tupahue (place of tupas, a plant that grew on the hill)

Apumanque, name of a chief, means flowers of the condors.
Manquehue, place of condors
Vitacura, Butacura, big stone, probable because the large stones on the river.
Mapocho, means Mapuche river, river of the Mapuche people. By the way, Mapuche means Mapu=land, Che=people, the people of this land or local peoples.
Talagante, hunging rope of the wizard... Talagante, even today, is famous for its mythical witches...
Aconcagua, according to some theory, comes from the Quechua Ackon Cabuak, that means "Stone sentinel"
Nuñoa, from Ñuñowe, place of ñuños.
Los Vilos, from Vilu, Filu, serpernt. It means the serpents.
Pudahuel, in the lake.
Maipu, cultivated land
Lonquen, lowland
Quilicura, red stone.
Curico, black river. Curiosily in Curicó there are some Spanish topinimics that say the same, like the place called "Aguas Negras"
Talca, from Tralca (Thunder)
Tobalaba, cemetery

That's for now.


Well, that's just

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by pinguin » Sun Oct 17, 2010 7:41 pm

patagoniax wrote:carpa -- you thought it was a Spanish word meaning "tent." It's another Quechua word, from the original carppa, or karpa. ...
Very interesting. I didn't know it.
You made me remember another Quechua word Chompa. As you know, in coloquial Spanish a "Chomba" is a Sweeter.

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by pinguin » Sun Oct 17, 2010 7:51 pm

patagoniax wrote:guanaco from the quechua term "wanaku" which means "green water-cannon conveyance employed by Carabineros to break up demonstrations." Also refers to a New World camelid animal, Lama guanicoe. Frequently described by undereducated and overcompensated travel writers as a llama, when it appears that quite the reverse is true..
That's is curious. The cops' water cannons that break demonstrations are called Guanacos, because this reason: the animal Guanaco, like all the American camelids, have the very bad manner of spit in the face of anyone that bugs them. So, because they spit, someone baptized the mobile water cannons of the police with theirs name.

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by pinguin » Sun Oct 17, 2010 7:53 pm

Last one, for now. The coloquial term "Paco", to call policemen in Chile, probably comes from the colony where the street guards weared ponchos made of alpaca wood. They were called alpacos and then "pacos". That's a theory I heared once. It isn't verified.

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by pinguin » Sun Oct 17, 2010 8:16 pm

patagoniax wrote:
pinguin wrote: Central Chile before contact was a multiethnic area, settled by Northern Mapuches (Picunches), by Diaguitas and other northerner peoples, and ruled by an Inca elite.
I seem to recall that the Inca incursion made it as far as the Maule river, where they had their arses kicked by the Mapuches.
Yes, but when the Incas retreat, they ensured the central region, particularly the central valley. Here, most of the subjects were Picunches (Northern Mapuches) under the rule of the Inca local chiefs. At the top of the Chena hill, South West of Santiago, the Incas had a small fortress of Tambo, made of mud and stone, where they controlled all the central valley.

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by pinguin » Sun Oct 17, 2010 8:20 pm

patagoniax wrote: Una explicación.... El quechua p'aku significa rubio, en castellano (no verde). Los antiguos policías de Santiago (en esos entonces llamados "serenos") se abrigaban con ponchos castaños. Según el Diccionario de Chilenismos de Zorobabel Rodriguez, publicado en 1875, esta sería la explicación más valida de que le llamemos pacos a los carabineros.
That's the explanation I apply. Those "blond ponchos", that were make of Alpaca wool, and as you know that wool is light brown or brown. So both terms have a coincidence: blond in Quechua (P'aku) and the term Alpacos (Alpaca ponchos).

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by pinguin » Sun Oct 17, 2010 8:26 pm

patagoniax wrote: And of course Santa Lucía hill in Santiasco was a Mapuche holy place. I once tried taking pictures of a Mapuche celebration there and had it not been for the presence of the Pacos, I suspect that some of the Mapuchitos would surely have beaten me up.
Some people don't understand the due respect to the beliefs of other peoples. In particular, if you aren't invited, you don't have the right to participate in a Mapuche celebration.

By the way, the term "Mapuchito" is offensive and is out of tune in today's Chile.

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by griffin » Sun Oct 17, 2010 8:50 pm

Pronunciation note vía my husband's Spanish teacher (disclaimer, she is Venezuelan but a long-time resident):

Gu-words of Spanish origin aré pronounced "gwah" (as in guardia).
Gu-words of local origin aré usually pronounced "wah" with a silent g (guagua, guata, etc).

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Re: Mapuche, Quechua and Aymara in Chilean Spanish

Post by pinguin » Sun Oct 17, 2010 9:10 pm

Well, Spanish is not pronounced exactly the same as Mapuche. However, it is well know that Chileans have influences of the Mapuche pronounciation in the daily Spanish. For instance, words with the combination "tr", are usually pronounced in street Chilean with a sound similar with the English "th". like tra (thrah), tre (threh), tri (three), etc. Spaniards, instead would pronounce it like a fast two silabes word Tra (tah-rah) Tre (teh-reh), Tri (tee-ree). That difference exist in the words with G as well. Guagua, for instance is pronounced in Spanish like goo-ah goo-ahh, while in Mapuche and coloquial Chilean, it usually sounds like Wah-Wah.

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